2. Social Embedding - The Societal Viewpoint2.1. The nature of social embedding (SE)Analogy with embodiment and situatedness; interaction with environment; beyond one-shot & off-line interaction; web of social interaction; modelling stance towards characterising SE.2.2. Some of the causes of SECo-evolution of social entities & abilities; parallel evolutionary processes (biological, cultural and neural); cognitive arms races; cultural adaptation to fit biological niches; development of expoitable computational and informational resources in the society.2.3. Some of the consequences of SEImpossible modelling burden for individual; importance of naming; importance of local communicative mechanisms; complexity of society and the individual; simple coping strategies (imitation, rapid sampling, games, use of proxies);emergence of new context and niches; emergence of heterogeneity.2.4. Some different ways understanding SE systemsA prior vs. descriptive; bottom-up vs. top-down; different sources (philosophical, economic, ethology, ethnology, biology); different focus processes (biological processes, cognitive processes, 1-1 social interaction, social institutions and processes); different styles of model (descriptive, mathematical/logical, computational, philosophical); trans-individual entities and processes.2.5. Existing modelling approachesEconomic; game theory; population dynamics; sociological theory; memetics; Alife; social robotics; social simulation; biological “models”, models from physics (e.g. self-organised criticaility).2.6. Example:a stock marketImitation, arms-races, gossip and signalling, deception games, proxies, market “moods”, statistical models, chaos models, agent-based models, unpredictability, emergence of unpredictability and heterogeneity, limitations of design stance, learning, fashion.2.7. SE in existing social societiesAnts; song birds, primates, humans; agents; robots; mixed societies.2.8. Discussion
4. Social Embedding - Implications for the Individual and its Interactions4.1. Phylogenetic and ontogenetic origins of social intelligence (SI)The Social/Machiavellian Intelligence Hypothesis, social situatedness and social embeddedness, origins of human societies, the role of SI in the evolution of human intelligence4.2. Examples of SI in humans, other primates, and other animalsPrimate politics, alliances, communication and cooperation, language in non-human animals (e.g. bonobos, parrots)4.3. Social learning and imitation in animalsSocial learning mechanisms, conspecifics as social tools, definitions of imitation, agent-based perspective to imitation, imitation research in biology and psychology4.4. Examples of imitation and social learning in robots and softwareProgramming by example as a new human-computer programming paradigm, imitation research in robotics, open research challenges4.5. The relationship of SI and “theories of mind”Mindreading, simulation-theory versus theory-theory, empathic understanding, attribution of intentionality and agency, folk psychology, role of anthropomorphism in designing SIA's4.6. SI and the origins of cultureCulture and imitation, examples of non-human culture (chimpanzees, cetaceans), implications for agent culture, culturally adaptive agents, agents that support cultural diversity4.7. Discussion
Adaptive Systems Research Group
University of Hertfordshire
Department of Computer Science
Whiteknights, PO Box 225
Reading, RG6 6AY. UK.
Fax: +44 (0) 1707-284-303
Tel: +44 (0) 1707-284-333
Centre for Policy Modelling,
Manchester Metropolitan University,
Aytoun Building, Aytoun St.,
Manchester M1 3GH. UK.
Fax: +44 (0) 161-247 6802
Tel: +44 (0) 161-247 6479
Kerstin Dautenhahn is Reader in Artificial Intelligence in the Department of Computer Science at University of Hertfordshire. She is editor of “Human Cognition and Social Agents Technology” (John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2000) and “Imitation in Animals and Artefacts” (MIT Press, to appear in April 2002.) Previously, she gave a half-day tutorial "On Minds and Agents: Social Intelligence in Animals and Artifacts" at Autonomous Agents 2000, Fourth International Conference on AUTONOMOUS AGENTS (Agents 2000), Barcelona, Spain, June 2000, and a two-hour tutorial “Socially Intelligent Agents - From Animals to Animats” within the Joint Tutorial Programme of SAB2000: 6th Int'l Conf. on the Simulation of Adaptive Behavior and PPSN2000: 6th Int'l Conf. on Parallel Problem Solving From Nature, Paris, France, Sunday 17th September 2000.
Bruce Edmonds is Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for Policy Modelling, a research unit that specialises on social simulation.His areas of research include: the methodology of social simulation, evolutionary computation, and context-dependency. He is a co-editor of the Journal of Memetics - Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission.He was part of the team that developed SDML a development environment for agent-based social simulation.He has recently co-edited special issues on the topics of "Computational Memetics" and "Context in Context".
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